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The three Rs of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement were established nearly 60 years ago to provide an ethical framework for humane animal research. The Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes explains how to apply the 3Rs at all stages, which makes it a working document applicable to the lifetime of a project. Replacement is therefore not just considered at the start of a project, but also reviewed in current projects and taken into account in planning future projects.

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